Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by chronic elevation of glucose in the blood. It arises because the body is unable to produce enough insulin for its own needs, either because of impaired insulin secretion, impaired insulin action, or both. Diabetes affects some 300 million people world-wide, and is on the increase. Chronic exposure to high blood glucose is a leading cause of renal failure, visual loss and a range of other types of tissue damage. Diabetes also predisposes to arterial disease, not least because it is often accompanied by hypertension, lipid disorders and obesity.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus
Since the cells can’t take in the glucose, it builds up in your blood. High levels of blood glucose can damage the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, heart, eyes, or nervous system. That’s why diabetes- especially if left untreated- can eventually cause Other disease like heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage to nerves in the feet.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body’s ability to use the energy found in food. There are three major types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.
Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 DM must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 DM may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 DM. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes involves taking insulin, which needs to be injected through the skin into the fatty tissue below. The methods of injecting insulin include
- Insulin pens that use prefilled cartridges and a fine needle
- Jet injectors that use high pressure air to send a spray of insulin through the skin
- Jet injectors that use high pressure air to send a spray of insulin through
- Insulin pumps that dispense insulin through flexible tubing to a catheter under the skin of the abdomen.